Exchange commodity standardization system
* DSTU - Ukrainian national standardization system
GOST - All-Union State Standard
|Wheat 2-6 classes||DSTU-3768-2010|
|Ammonium nitrate||GOST 2-85|
|Rye 1-3 classes:||DSTU-4522-2006|
|Oil food poppy||DSTU -12094-76|
|Feed oats||DSTU 28673-90|
|Food oats||DSTU -4963-2008|
|Food buckwheat||DSTU -4524-2006|
|Food barley||DSTU -3769-98|
|Food chickpea||DSTU -8758-76|
|Sunflower seeds||DSTU -4694-2006|
|Beef 1 cat. in half carcass||DSTU -6030-2008|
|Sweetened condensed milk||DSTU -4274-2003|
|Stewed beef||DSTU -4450-2005|
|Canned fish-“Atlantic Sardines"||GOST 13865|
|Millet superior quality||DSTU 572-60|
|Fodder corn||DSTU 4525-2006|
|Pumpkin seeds||DSTU 658-95|
|Barley 3 class||DSTU -3769-98|
|Mustard seeds||DSTU 9159-71|
|Walnut (kernel)||GOST 16833-71|
|Rape seeds for industrial processing||DSTU 4966:2008|
|Oil flax plant seeds for processing||DSTU 4967:2008|
|Crude oil and petroleum products||DSTU ISO 12185:2009|
|Liquefied gas||DSTU 4047-2001-2001|
Designation of coal
А – anthracite
ПА – half anthracite
П – lean
ПС – lean caking
К – coking
СС – low caking
КЖ – fat coking coal
Ж – fat
Г – gas
Д – long-flame
Б – brown
Ranks of coal
|Rank category||Rank||Genetic group|
|long-flame gas||ДГ||long-flame gas vitrinite||ДГВ|
|long-flame gas fusinite||ДГФ|
|Gas fat lean||ГЖП||Gas fat low- caking||ГЖС||Gas fat caking vitrinite||ГЖСВ|
|Gas fat caking fusinite||ГЖПФ|
|Gas fat lean||ГЖП|
|Fat other||ЖД||fat other vitrinite||ЖДВ|
|fat other fusinite||ЖДФ|
|Lean coke||ПК||Lean coke||ПК||Lean Coke vitrinite||ПКВ|
|Lean Coke fusinite||ПКФ|
|Lean caking||ПС||Lean caking vitrinite||ПСВ|
|Lean caking fusinite||ПСФ|
|Coke low-caking||КС||Coke low-caking||КС||Coke Weakly caking vitrinite||КСВ|
|Coke weakly caking fusinite||КСФ|
|Coke low-caking low-metamorphized||КСН||Coke low-caking low-metamorphized vitrinite||КСНВ|
|Coke low-caking low-metamorphized fusinite||КСНФ|
|Low-caking||СС||Low-caking||СС||Low-caking low metamorphized vitrinite||ССНФ|
|Low-caking low metamorphized fusinite||ССНФ|
|Lean||П||Lean caking||ТС||Lean caking vitrinite||ПСВ|
|Lean caking fusinite||ПСФ|
Vitrit is one of the main ingredients of coal. It’s the bearer of coal’s basic properties and occurs as lenses, layers, and sometimes entire packs of coal-bed. Characteristic features: high gloss, compositional uniformity, monolithic vitreous structure, smooth or shell-like fracture across the strata. Vitrit compared to other ingredients is usually less ashy.
Fusain has a distinctive silky shine and fibrous or sooty composition. It is observed in the form of lenses, nests, layers. Porous, soft and fragile fusain looks like charcoal and usually contains large amounts of mineral inclusions.
Rank A (anthracite)
Anthracite combines coals with a vitrinite reflectance over 2.59%. When the volatile-matter content less than 8% anthracites are also coals with a vitrinite reflectance from 2.2 to 2.59%.
Generally anthracite coal is used for energy purposes. Medium and large classes serve as a smokeless fuel in the domestic sector.
Part of the anthracite is directed to the production of thermoanthracite, which, in turn, is used as the main carbon filler in the manufacture of cathode blocks for electrolytic cells in the aluminium industry. Anthracites are also used for the production of silicon carbide and aluminum carbide.
Rank Д (LF long-flame)
Long-flame coals with a vitrinite reflectance from 0.4 to 0.79% with the volatile-matter content more than 28-30% when powdered or low-caking non-volatile residue.
LF are energy coals and no caking. Uses of these coals are energy and utilities fuel, so their most significant characteristic is the heat of combustion. When you move to the next Rank ДГ (long-flame gas) calorific value of coal increases significantly.
Researches have shown that long-flame coals with low ash content can serve as a good raw material for production of synthetic liquid fuel and chemical products, production of the formed coke and spherical absorbents, low-temperature (up to 700 degrees) coking.
Rank ДГ (LFG long-flame gas)
Long-flame gas coals have vitrinite reflectance from 0.4 to 0.79% with the volatile-matter content more than 28-30% when powdered or low-caking non-volatile residue. These coals are transitional between the coal of ranks Д (long-flame) and Г (gas). They differ from long-flame coals by caking (thickness of plastic layer 6-9 mm, and from gas coal with similar caking more minor fragility and increased mechanical strength). The latter circumstance leads to prevalence among these coals in coarse-middle classes.
Long-flame gas coal is also referred to the group of energy coal. They are not useful in coke's charge, because the resulting coke has a low mechanical strength and high reactivity.
Rank Г (G gas)
Gas coals have two technology groups. Vitrinite coals (a measure of the vitrinite reflectance from 0.5 to 0.89%) volatile-matter content 38% or more, with the plastic layer thickness from 10 to 12 mm form the 1G group, vitrinite and inertinite coals with a vitrinite reflectance from 0.8 to 0.99%, volatile-matter content 30% or higher and thickness of plastic layer from 13 to 16 mm form the 2G group.
Humidity of gas coal usually does not exceed 10 %, ash content varies from 7 to 35% with a predominance of ash content of 10-15%.
Gas coals mainly used as energy and domestic fuel.
2G coals are used for caking with thick plastic layer over 13 mm. Limited ability to use gas coal in the charge of coke plants producing metallurgical coke, is that layer coking cause the formation of tiny fractures in the coke, significantly reducing its strength.
Gas coals with a thick plastic layer of 8-12 mm are used for production of formed coke and spherical absorbents, and coal with thickness of plastic layer less than 8 mm for gasification and carbonization. Rank G vitrinite low-ash coals with volatile-matter content more than 42% are good as raw materials for the production of synthetic liquid fuels.
Rank Б (B brown)
Brown coals are characterized by low values of vitrinite reflectance (less than 0.6%) and high volatile-matter content (over 45%).
Brown coals are divided depending on the humidity on the technological groups: 1B (humidity above 40%), 2B (30-40%), 3B (30%).
Brown coals are used as energy fuel and chemical raw materials.
Rank ГЖО (GFL gas fat lean)
GFL coals are intermediate between ranks G and GF by the values of volatile-matter content and thickness of the plastic layer.
There are two technology groups. In the technological group 1GFL coals with a vitrinite reflectance of less than 0.8% and volatile-matter content less than 38% and the thickness of the plastic layer from 10 to 16 mm are selected. Group 2GFL includes coals with a vitrinite reflectance of 0.80 to 0.99%, a volatile-matter content less than 38%, with the thickness of plastic layer from 10 to 13 mm, as well as coals with a vitrinite reflectance 0,80-0,89% volatile-matter content 36% or more when the thickness of the plastic layer is 14-16 mm.
Humidity of the GFL coals ranges from 6-8%, ash content - 6-40%. The carbon content varies in the range of 78-85%, hydrogen - from 4.8 to 6.0%, sulfur of 0.2-0.8%.
GFL coals are characterized by a wide variation of properties.
1GFL coals with the thickness of the plastic layer less than 13 mm may be no more than 20% of the charge coke plants, and only provided that the charge remainder contains well-caking coals with a vitrinite reflectance of 1 to 1.5%.
2GFL coals are good raw materials for coking (especially when the index of vitrinite reflectance is not less than 0.85%) and can make up more than half of the charge.
Fusinite 1GFL coal is completely unsuitable for the production of metallurgical coke, and can be used in a household (large classes) or energy (small classes) sectors.
Rank ГЖ (GF gas fat)
GF coals occupy an intermediate position between G and F and are divided into two groups.
1GF combines the coals with a vitrinite reflectance of 0.5-0,79%, volatile-matter content of 38% or more and thickness of the plastic layer more than 16 mm.
2GF combines coals with a vitrinite reflectance of 0.8 to 0.99%, volatile-matter content of 36% or more, the thickness of the plastic layer is 17-25 mm.
GF differs from G coals by higher caking and from F by higher volatile-matter content.
GF coals mainly used in the coke industry and belong to the group of coal, particularly valuable for coking. In most cases, they can completely replace fat coals in the charges of coke plants.
Concentrates of GF coals with ash content less than 2% is appropriate to apply as a binder in production of electrode and graphite products; the GF coal is suitable for v production.
Rank Ж (F fat)
F coals are divided into two groups. The first group 1F consists of coals with a vitrinite reflectance of 0.8-1.19%, and volatile-matter content 28-35,9% and thickness of the plastic layer is 14 - 17 mm. The second group 2F consists of coals with a vitrinite reflectance of 0.8 to 0.99%, a volatile-matter content of 36% or more, when the thickness of the plastic layer is 26 mm or more. Coals with the same values of vitrinite reflectance, but with the volatile-matter content from 30 to 36% when the thickness of the plastic layer is 18 mm and above belong to this group. Also 2F includes coals with a vitrinite reflectance 1-1,19% with a volatile-matter content not less than 30% when the thickness of the plastic layer is not less than 18 mm.
F’s are particularly valuable coking coals and are mainly used in coke industry, ranging from 20 to 70% of the coke charge. Coke, obtained from F coal has high structural strength.
Rank КЖ (CF coke fat)
CF stands out as coals with a vitrinite reflectance of 0.9-1.29%, and the thickness of the plastic layer is 18 mm, with the volatile-matter content 25-30%.
The main consumer of CF coals is coke industry. Of all coal ranks used to produce coke, CF has the highest cocking. High quality metallurgical coke from them is obtained without mixing with other coal ranks. In addition, they are able to adopt up to 20% without changes in the coke quality of an additive of ranks like CL, CLC and LC.
Rank K (C coke)
Coking coals are characterized by the refractive index of vitrinite from 1 to 1.29%, and good cocking behavior. The thickness of the plastic layer is 13-17 mm with the index of vitrinite reflectance 1,3-1,69%. The volatile- matter content is within 24-24,9%.
Without mixing with other coal ranks provide a conditioned metallurgical coke. Coke quality may increase substantially when mixing C coal with 20-40% F, GF and CF coals.
Rank KO (CL coke lean)
CL coals with volatile matter, similar to C coals, but with a smaller thickness of the plastic layer of 10-12 mm with refractive Index of vitrinite - 0,8-0,99%.
CL coals are mainly used to produce metallurgical coke as filler to GF and F ranks.
Rank КСН (CLCM coke low-caking low-metamorphized)
CLCM coals are characterized by low index of vitrinite reflectance from 0.8 to 1.09%. Caking without mixing with other coals give little mechanically solid highly abrade coke.
Used in coke industry, energy and utility sectors. CLCM can also be used to produce synthetic gas.
Rank КСН (KLC coke low-caking)
KLC coals are characterized by low-caking (thickness of plastic layer 6-9 mm with a refractive index of vitrinite 1,1-1,69%.
KLC coals are mainly used in coke industry as an inert component. Part of the coal is used for layer combustion in industrial boilers and in the housing sector.
Rank OC (LC lean caking)
LC coals have vitrinite reflectance index from 1.3 to 1.8% and the volatile-matter content not more than 21.9 percent. The thickness of the plastic layer for 2LC group is 6-7 mm, and for the group 1LC - 9 to 12 mm with vitrinite composition and 10-12 mm with fusinite.
The moisture content of mined LC coals does not exceed 8-10%. The ash content varies from 7 to 40%. The sulfur content in Kuzbas does not exceed 0.6%, in Karaganda sometimes reaches 1.2% and Donbass region about 1.2 to 4.0%.
Carbon content is 88-91%, hydrogen 4,2-5,%.
The main consumer of LC coals is coke industry; these coals are one of the best inert components in coke's charge. Some of the LC coals even without mixing with other coal grades provide high-quality metallurgical coke, but when coking they develop great spreading pressure on the walls of coke ovens, coke from the ovens is given with difficulty that leads to rapid furnaces breakdown. Therefore, the LC coals usually coked in a mixture with coal grades G and GF with a high degree of shrinkage.
Rank TC (LLC lean low-caking)
LLC coals are characterized by volatile-matter content less than 22% and very low-caking (the thickness of the plastic layer is less than 6 mm).
The humidity of the LLC coals is low - 4-6%. The ash content is in the range of 6-45%. The carbon content of 89-91%, hydrogen 4,0-4,8%.The sulfur content in coals of Kuzbas is 0.3-0.5%, Donbass - 0.8 to 4.5 percent.
The LLC coals are used in coke industry and mainly in the energy sector; large-middle classes of the coals are a good smokeless fuel for small boilers and individual household usage.
Rank CC (LCK low-caking)
The LCK coals are characterized by vitrinite reflectance index at 0,7-1,79% , thickness of the plastic layer less than 6 mm and volatile-matter content typical for F, CF, C, CLC and LLC.
Humidity of the coal reaches 8-9%. The ash content varies from 8 to 45%. The sulfur content is usually not higher than 0.8%. The carbon content ranges from 74 to 90%, hydrogen from 4.0 to 5.0%.
Mainly used on large power plants, industrial boilers and household sector. In a limited number some varieties of the LCK coals are used in the charge of coke plants.
Rank T (L lean)
L coals are characterized by volatile-matter content from 8 to 15.9% with the index of vitrinite reflectance from 1.3 to 2.59%; caking is absent.
Mainly used in the electric power industry and in the domestic sector; under the condition of low ash content can be used to obtain carbon fillers in the electrode production.
|Group||Class||Symbolic notation||Limit size of pieces|
|Combined and screenings||Large with plate||ПК||50(40)||200..300|
|Bean with large||КО||25(20)||100(80)|
|Small with nut||ОМ||13(10)||50(40)|
|Rice with small||МС||6(5..8)||25(20)|
|Rice with dust||СШ||0||13(10)|
|Small with rice and dust||МСШ||0||25(20)|
|Bean with small, rice and dust||ОМСШ||0||50(40)|
Types of coal
|Type of coal||Vitrinite reflectance R,%||Combustion value Qafs, MJ / kg||Volatile Vdaf,%|
|Brown||Less 0,5||23,87 and Less||---|
|Stone||From 0.5 to 2.39 inclusive||Above 23,87||9 and above|
|Anthracite||2,4 and more||---||Less than 9|