Securities – standard documents with the corresponding information, which certify monetary rights or other property rights, determine the relationship of the person who issued them, and the owner, and provide the fulfillment of obligations under the terms of their allocation, and transfer of rights appearing from these documents to others.
Evaluation of securities is intended to define their market and investment value. Due to a number of reasons, the investment cost does not always coincide with the market cost. The current difference is explained by the specifics of the future profitability estimation, perceptions of risk, tax situation, etc..
Securities are divided by the equity securities and non-equity securities in order of their issuance. Equity securities - securities evidencing the same rights to their owners within the same issue with respect to a person who takes the responsibility (the Issuer).
Equity securities include shares, enterprises bonds; local bonds; government bonds of Ukraine; mortgage certificates; mortgage bonds; real estate funds certificates; investment securities; Treasury obligations of Ukraine.
The specifics of securities evaluation are determined by the fact that securities, as a commodity, which rotates in the stock market, is a special form of existence of capital. At the same time security is not a material commodity, and its value is determined by the rights it provides to its owner. Therefore, the valuation of securities is based on precise analysis of the complex of the owner’s rights and further calculation of the rights value.
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